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It is often thought that a wildfire will consume and kill all of the vegetation within its perimeter, but this is more an exception than a rule. Indeed, heterogeneity of fuels and microclimate leads to heterogeneity of fire behavior and effects, so that injured but surviving plants often remain after a wildfire (Bond & Van Wilgen, 1996). This has important emergent outcomes spanning levels of biological organization, from cellular photosynthesis and respiration to ecosystem production and evapotranspiration. However, despite more than half a century of research, the mechanisms by which fire injuries occur and interact are not well understood (Michaletz & Johnson, 2007).